The additional books in the catholic bible are found in the old testament and include. They both consist of exactly twentyseven 27 books, matthew through revelation, with no distinction whatsoever. The quran calls the first five books of the old testament the tawrat in judaism, the collection of inspired books is known as tanakh. The protestant old testament contains 39 books and is not traditionally divided into sections as are the tanakh, orthodox old testament or catholic old testament. Tanach stands for torahfirst 5 books, neviimprophets ketuvimwritings, and that also says something about the order, i. What protestants dont realize is the theologians who didnt accept these books were antichristian theologians, not believing in the prophecies in the books of the apocrypha and for some reason protestant christians follow these antichristian theologians in selecting the books for the old testament when the majority of their christian.
In christianity, the old testament is the name of the first part of the bible, the one written before jesus christ. The protestant reformation, which began in germany in 1517 with the 95 theses of martin luther, gave rise to a new canon of the old testament. This word is sometimes used specifically and possibly negatively to describe the books in the catholic and orthodox canon that are not in the protestant bible. Here you can find quick, 3minute guides to every book of the old testament. They remained in the appendix of protestant bibles until about 1826, and then they were.
The catholic bible contains all the books that have traditionally been accepted by christians since the canon of scripture was recognized by the synod of rome in. These are books which are not held equal to the sacred. Both the jewish bible and the hebrew canon in a protestant bible aka old testament contain 39 books, whereas a catholic bible contains 46. Seven books of the bible, all in the old testament, are accepted by roman catholics and eastern orthodox, but are not accepted by jews or protestants. There are 66 books in the canon of the protestant bible 39 in the old testament and 27 in the new testament and 73 books in the canon of the catholic bible 46. The books of the canon are not obvious merely from reading them. Why do catholics have 2 books in their bible that protestants do not have. The following table contains a list of the 39 old testament books as listed in a typical protestant bible. Both jews and christians believe these texts to be holy. The catholic church based its bible off the expanded greek translation and early on shifted which books were included. Why are the books of the bible placed in a particular.
I have written a short article on this subject if you wish to study it further catholic vs. By comparison, the books of the catholic bible include all 66 in the previous list plus seven extra books. These twentytwo books correspond exactly to the thirtynine books of the christian old testament see the christian ot versus the jewish tanakh. Christians traditionally divide the old testament into four sections.
Why did martin luther remove seven 7 books from the. The hebrew bible recognizes the books referred to as the old testament in the protestant bible, but not the apocryphal. So instead of the original 22 books which became 24 books in current hebrew bible versions by separating several books into two and combining others, now christians had 39 separate books that we call the old testament and we also had a new. The books of the old testament are listed below, each of them linked to their chapter index. Tobias, judith, wisdom, ecclesiasticus sirach, baruch, and 1 maccabees and 2 maccabees bringing the total to 73 books. The 24 books of the hebrew bible are the same as the 39 books of the protestant old testament, only divided and ordered differently. These books are not held equal to the sacred scriptures, and yet. With this background, we can now address why the protestant versions of the bible have less books than the catholic versions. Such bibles comprise 39 books of the old testament according to the jewish hebrew bible canon, known especially to nonprotestants as the protocanonical books and 27 books of the new testament for a total of 66 books. In general the tanakh is the same as the christian old testament. While protestant and jewish bibles have thirtynine old testament books, the bible used by roman catholic and eastern orthodox christians include the thirtynine books and several additional writings. The method in general was the same as that followed by the authors of the first and third gospels in their use of matthews sayings of jesus and the original mark narrative, or by the authors of samuel, kings, and chronicles in their citations from the older sources. But when it comes to the old testament, catholic and protestant bibles differ.
The old testament or jewish tanakh is the first book of the bible. It contains the origin and creation of the universe, the exodus from egypt, the formation of israel the prophets and the wisdom books. These were the last books of the old testament written, composed in the last two centuries b. The old testament protestant order according to the protestant order, the books of the old testament are divided along a topical arrangement. The word apocrypha was used by protestants to name books which were included in the old testament of the septuagint but not found in the old testament of the masoretic text. Protestant bibles by greg witherow catholic bibles contain old testament books not found in protestant bibles and as such catholics are sometimes asked to explain this discrepancy. As you may know, the catholic and protestant bibles differ in the number of books that each considers to be divinely inspired. Books of the bible simple english wikipedia, the free. The curious case of the protestant bible catholic answers. The old testament of the roman catholic tradition, and also the eastern orthodox tradition includes a several writings more than in the hebrew jewish bible or the protestant old testament. How many books are in the new testament of the protestant.
Martin luther should prove that to protestants, since he was the founder of the protestant reformation, and yet he tried to jettison four books from the new testament. What differs between catholic bibles and protestant bibles is the old testament. Just click any books name, and get a highlevel idea of what its about. Genesis creation, the fall, the flood, the spread of the nations, abraham, isaac, jacob, and joseph. The difference between the catholic and protestant bibles specifically centers around the old testament and the old testament alone. Why are there 39 books and 46 books in the old testament. The second part is the greek new testament, containing 27 books. These books are also written in poetic style, hence the category. Protestants and catholics use the masoretic text of the jewish tanakh as the textual basis for their translations of the protocanonical books those accepted as. The protestant bible consists of 66 books which are considered to be divinely inspired. The old testament apocrypha consists of eleven or twelve books, depending upon how they are divided, that the roman catholic church adds to the old testament.
This list, or canon, was affirmed at the councils of jamnia in a. The version of the bible in use at the time of jesus was the septuagint abbreviated lxx, for the 70 men who translated it from hebrew into greek by the beginning. These books are found in the earliest greek translation of the tanakh, but were later rejected by the rabbis the books of the tanakh are usually printed in a different order than. For example, the hebrew bible has one book of samuel, while the protestant bible has i. In this short essay we will briefly cover the differences between the catholic and protestant bibles and the reasons behind those differences.
A protestant bible is a christian bible whose translation or revision was produced by protestants. Catholic bibles contain the following books that protestant bibles do not. These include the book of proverbs many of them credited to solomon, whom the bible extols for his wisdom and ecclesiastes. Why did martin luther take 7 books out of the bible. The protestant old testament includes exactly the same information, but organized into 39 books. The protestants reject these books as holy scripture for the following reasons. The basic reason is that the protestant leaders chose to accept only the books of the old testament accepted as canonical in judaism, which they assumed. What are the 12 history books in the old testament answers. The protocanonical books of the old testament correspond with those of the bible of the. A list of books with brief descriptions of contents. Some christians use a few extra books, which are called deuterocanonical or apocrypha, by those who reject them. The septuagint is a greek translation of the old testament which dates at least to the 2nd century bc, the masoretic text is the modern hebrew version of the old. This results in 46 old testament books in catholic bibles and 39 old testament books in protestant bibles.
The old testament contains 39 protestant, 46 catholic, or more orthodox and other books, divided, very broadly, into the pentateuch torah, the historical books, the wisdom books and the prophets. The law torah in hebrew comprises the first five books. That since the catholic old testament contains seven more books than protestant bibles, the catholic church must have added later to justify doctrines that jesus did not teach. Catholics have fortysix 46 books in the old testament, while protestants have only thirtynine 39. The books of the old testament enter your search terms. Why do catholic bibles have a longer old testament than protestant bibles. The formation of the old testament canon bible hub. If a table cell has an asterisk, it means that a book is used, but in a different order. How many books are in the old testament catholic bible. The old testament books in chronological order list. Protestantisms old testament problem catholic answers.
Old testament books table of the 39 books of the old. Where does the tanakh differ from the christian old testament. A difference is the order of the books a hebrew bible is as you know often referred to as a tanach. While all christians have the same twentyseven new testament books, they disagree regarding the number of books in the old testament canon.
Their omission in protestant bibles leaves a chronological gap in salvation history. The most noticeable differences occur in the number of books included and the order in which they have been arranged. The old testament is made up of several collections of books that are found in the jewish bible. Both the jewish bible and the hebrew canon in a protestant bible aka old testament contain 39 books, whereas a catholic bible contains 46 books in the old testament. Perhaps no area in catholicprotestant apologetics involves as many outright falsehoods as the history of the bible. How is the hebrew bible different from the christian old. Among contemporary christians, the roman catholic church recognizes as deuterocanonical several books that are consigned to the old testament apocrypha by most protestant bodies, whose canon conforms to that of the contemporary hebrew bible. Below is the protestant canon of the bible new revised standard version. This does not mean that other parts of the old testament are devoid of poetry.
In 1534, martin luther translated the bible into german. The result is that these versions of the bible have more old testament books than most protestant versions. The roman catholic canon also includes the deuterocanonical books as part of the old testament these are considered apocryphal by most protestants. Catholic old testaments include 1st and 2nd maccabees, baruch, tobit, judith, the wisdom of solomon, sirach ecclesiasticus, additions to esther, and the stories of susanna and bel and the dragon which are included in daniel. Why were the books of the old testament apocrypha rejected. The protestant bible has 66 books in total and catholic bible has 73 books. Why catholic bibles have more books than protestant bibles. Exodus enslavement, moses, ten plagues, passover, leave egypt, red sea crossing, mt. What are the differences between the hebrew bible and the. Theyre listed in the order they show up in protestant bibles.
Order of the old testament books new testament bible class. The first part of christian bibles is the greek old testament, which contains, at minimum, the above 24 books of the tanakh but divided into 39 books and ordered differently. Each book has its own separate chapter index, because waiting for all the chapter links of the old testament books to appear on one page can take a while. The old testament abbreviated ot is the first part of the christian biblical canon, which is based primarily upon the twentyfour books of the hebrew bible or tanakh, a collection of ancient religious hebrew writings by the israelites believed by most christians and religious jews to be the sacred word of god. The old testament has 39 books total, which consist of. He grouped the seven deuterocanonical books of the old testament under the title apocrypha, declaring. The hebrew bible recognizes the books referred to as the old testament in the protestant bible, but not the apocryphaldeuterocanonical. Since the 16th century, most protestant churches have accepted only works in the masoretic text of the hebrew bible as canonical books of the old testament.
Protestants also have shorter versions of the books of daniel and esther. There are supposed to be 39 books in the old testament. The roman catholic ot and easter orthodox ot include books that protestants consider apocryphal. Quite the contrary, many prophetical books contain much poetry. Tobit, judith, baruch, wisdom, sirach, 1 and 2 maccabees, and parts of esther and daniel.946 805 1565 1004 1521 1265 218 364 138 302 1033 155 808 852 516 730 49 1048 1532 1043 1553 993 1138 577 1039 1389 136 971 1110 1012 406 1086 662 1224 876 396 398 153 172 146 797 1489 311 56 1075 845